What ICD-10 Code is for Other Disorders of Psychological Development?

What ICD-10 Code Is for Other Disorders of Psychological Development?

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision or ICD-10 is the worldwide standard for classifying various mental and physical disorders. Although the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition or DSM-5 is more commonly used in a majority of places in the United States, the ICD-10 standard is more common throughout the rest of the world. 

Why Are ICD-10 Codes Used?

ICD-10 codes are very useful to medical practices for several reasons. First, they allow for the standardization of diagnoses, which makes insurance billing infinitely easier. Additionally, they can more easily facilitate communication between doctors, especially if they’re in different countries and speak different languages. 

What ICD-10 Code is for Other Disorders of Psychological Development?

The ICD-10 code for Other Disorders of Psychological Development is F88. ICD-10 uses alphanumeric codes consisting of a letter followed by two numbers. The “F” indicates that it belongs to the “Mental, Behavioral, and Neurodevelopmental Disorders” section. 

It is part of the F80-F89 subsection, which contains “Pervasive and specific developmental disorders”.

What Is the Difference Between DSM-5 and ICD-10?

Both the DSM-5 and the ICD-10 standards are common, especially in the United States. There is also a lot of overlap in coverage between the two, although there are a few conditions that are specifically laid out in one and not the other. In the DSM-5, “Other Disorders of Psychological Development” is listed as a subsection in 3.1.

What’s the Difference Between “Other Disorders of Psychological Development” and “Unspecified Disorder of Psychological Development”?

ICD-10 code F88 refers to Other Disorders of Psychological Development and F89 is for Unspecified Disorder of Psychological Development. Although these sound similar, there is actually a significant difference between the two. 

F88 is used when the specific disorder is not listed among the rest of the ICD-10 developmental disorder codes, and F89 is used when the cause of the developmental hindrance is idiopathic (i.e., no discernible cause), the specific nature of the condition is irrelevant (due to all possibilities having the same treatment plan, for example), or the attending medical professional wasn’t more specific. 

What Are Other Disorders of Psychological Development?

As the name suggests, this diagnosis is given when someone shows a specific condition that causes impaired development that is not among those listed in the ICD-10 subsection on psychological development disorders. 

It is similar to the next code on the list, F89, which is “Unspecified Disorders of Psychological Development.” Both are used to describe clients whose diagnosis is not one of those listed in the ICD-10. However, the major difference is that the former is used for a known condition the attending believes the person has, while the latter is used when the cause is idiopathic or irrelevant to the initial treatment plan.

The listed disorders include conditions on the Autism Spectrum, Asperger’s Syndrome, difficulty reading, problems understanding basic math, speaking issues, writing issues, and a whole host of other developmental concerns. According to the US Centers for Disease Control, in 2021, 8.56% of children ages 3 to 17 had been diagnosed at some point in their lives with a developmental disability.

As the ICD-10 is used throughout the world, listing every possible condition would be too cumbersome and would reduce the effectiveness of giving each condition a unique code. For this reason, less common conditions are often grouped together.

Symptoms of Other Disorders of Psychological Development?

Not all clients will show disorders in the same way. For example, some may not speak at all, while others might be constantly irritable or agitated. Others may switch between the two at a moment’s notice.

In general, code F88 covers a wide range of less common developmental disorders, which can generally be described as a child failing to reach a significant developmental milestone by the appropriate age. For example, the code F88 can be applied to a child who reaches the age of 3 and does not speak or a child who is still unable to read on their 6th birthday. 

These are particularly difficult to diagnose for several reasons. First, as these conditions generally begin to appear when the child is of preschool age, a parent may not recognize that their child isn’t developing along the normal timeline. They may say things like, “Every child is different,” “My kid is just a slow learner,” or “I didn’t start talking until I was 4 or 5 either.” 

Additionally, the child’s upbringing could affect their socialization. If their parents both work from home and don’t often put themselves in social situations due to fear of contracting COVID-19, it would be difficult to ascertain whether their 4-year-old child avoids social situations as learned behavior from their parents or if they have a psychological development disorder that makes them uncomfortable around others. The first could also lead to the second.

For these reasons, some children with psychological development disorders may show symptoms in the preschool age. They may not be recognized until the child reaches their first year of schooling, however. In these cases, a teacher, a school counselor, or other authority figure might recommend that a child get tested for a developmental disorder. The final decision, of course, will be up to the child’s parents. 

If parents are reluctant to have their children tested, it’s important for these authority figures and professionals to reassure parents that the medical field has advanced many years past the point it was at when they were children. Treatments are only designed to help the child overcome whatever obstacles, physical or mental, that are hindering their development. It should be emphasized that the child’s well-being is the primary concern.

What Treatment Is Available for Other Disorders of Psychological Development?

Treatment will depend on the root cause of the exact disorder the client has, although many psychological development disorders follow a similar treatment plan. Generally, therapy is the first approach, as it can determine more exactly the reasons why the child’s development has been hindered and try to find ways to overcome it organically.

If the disorder is caused by environmental concerns like heavy metal toxicity, the existing damage may not be able to be undone. Cadmium poisoning, for example, can cause developmental issues and has no known cure. However, by removing the offending substances from the child’s environment, further damage can be prevented.

When a child’s development is halted due to a trauma response, they will likely require therapy and potentially be placed in a foster home or other care facility to get them out of a dangerous situation. Most jurisdictions in the United States require medical professionals to report suspected sexual or physical abuse to Child Protective Services or the equivalent agency, but the step should be taken regardless of legal requirements.

A genetic or biological defect can potentially be reversed through surgery. For example, a child could be born with a genetic malformation in their brain called a Dandy-Walker Malformation that prevents them from being able to walk properly. Their legs could be perfectly healthy, but if their brain can’t properly transmit the signal to walk, they could still be crawling at the age of 4 or 5. 

Poor diet and lack of proper nutrients during the formative years can also cause a child’s development to slow down. For example, the body of a child deficient in Vitamin B12 won’t have the physical energy necessary to form new brain cells. Adequate protein is also essential and can be supplemented through over-the-counter children’s vitamins if the family follows a vegan diet or has a genetic condition that makes them unable to process meat.

Prognosis for Other Disorders of Psychological Development

The future outlook for children diagnosed with psychological development disorders will naturally depend on the specific condition they have. A child with an autism spectrum disorder, for example, will continue to have it for the rest of their life. Most of them, however, can live relatively normal lives, while others will require around-the-clock care.

Some conditions can be overcome through medication. A child with a condition similar to Attention Deficit Disorder or Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder can be given medication, usually stimulants, that can help to increase their mental focus. This doesn’t “cure” the disease, but it will manage their symptoms as long as they continue to take their medication every day.

Learning disabilities like dyslexia, dysgraphia, or dyscalculia prevent a child from being able to read, write, or do math, respectively. There is no medication or surgery that will “fix” the problem, but with therapy and individual education plans (IEP), they can learn in a way that makes sense for them and that their brains are able to process. They may not take jobs as adults that require them to use these skills, but overall, it should not affect their quality of life.

A child with certain conditions may simply “grow out” of them as they begin to age. A child who takes a bit longer to speak or walk, for example, may learn to do so a few months or even a year past the expected time for the milestone to be reached. Once they have, though, it’s possible that they will have no future developmental issues and will live a completely normal life.

Using AutoNotes

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