What are the 2024 ICD-10-CM Codes?

Dr. Daniel Callahan DSW, LMSW, CRC-ABC

Dr. Daniel (Dan) J. Callahan, DSW, is a licensed social worker in New York and credentialled addiction practitioner in Florida. Dan has a lengthy human service career dating back to 1983 in various capacities, from entry-level to executive. He attained a Doctor of Social Work at Tulane University School of Social Work and MSW at Fordham University, Lincoln Center in New York City.

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What Are the 2024 ICD-10-CM Codes?

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a universal medical coding system that finds its roots in the early efforts of medical pioneers like William Cullen, Francois Bossier de Lacroix, and John Graunt. Seeking a way to determine the mortality rates of specific ailments and make vital associations between diseases, populations, outcomes, and healthcare utilization, physicians, scientists, and governments experimented for centuries with coding systems based on nomenclature, symptoms, and other factors.

ICD codes were introduced in 1893 by the World Health Organization (WHO) with the global use of ICD-1 for disease classification. As new diseases were discovered and understanding of various medical conditions evolved, ICD-1 was replaced by ICD-2 and so forth. In 2023, ICD-10 or the 10th revision of ICD codes remains the most current classification and coding system used in the United States, with the WHO’s more recent ICD-11 being implemented in phases.

What Are ICD-10-CM Codes?

ICD-10-CM codes are a set of ICD-10 codes established specifically for use in the United States under the authorization and approval of the WHO. The addition of “CM” to the universal classification system denotes “clinical modification.” This adaptation of ICD-10 codes was established by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) to classify data from death certificates. This coding system is managed and regularly revised by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in conjunction with the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS).

When Was the ICD-10-CM Last Revised?

ICD-10-CM code revisions were published in June 2023. Implemented by the CMS and CDC, these changes include hundreds of updates, deletions, and additions. They also include changes in how codes should be entered and used.

What to Know About 2024 ICD-10-CM Updates

In the past, changes to the ICD-10-CM codes were made each fiscal year. As per the CMS, revised ICD-10-CM codes for 2024 must be used for all patient encounters and discharges occurring from the start of October 2023 to the end of September 2024. There is no grace period.

2024 ICD-10-CM updates include 25 code deletions, 13 code revisions, and the addition of 396 new codes. There are 446 changes in total.

About 2024 ICD-10-CM Code Deletions

The process of eliminating recognized disorders falls into the hands of the WHO, as seen in many of its ICD-11 changes. As such, ICD-10-CM code deletions often account for the addition of digits to existing codes or other modifications to make them more specific. Thus, many of the same codes classed as deletions in the 2024 ICD-10-CM updates can be found among revised or newly added codes for this same fiscal year, albeit with extra numbers. In this fashion, the CMS and CDC aim to clarify the classification of diseases rather than remove them. The following are several examples of such “deletions.”

2024 ICD-10-CM Code Deletions Related to Caregivers

ICD-10-CM codes relating to the non-compliance of caregivers in the treatment or management of health issues were revised to account for financial hardship. This includes the code for non-compliance with medication management (Z91.A41), non-compliance with renal dialysis plans (Z91.A51), and non-compliance with general treatment and maintenance (Z91.A91). This update distinguishes financial hardship from other reasons for non-compliance with the addition of “1” at the code’s end. Non-compliance for non-financial reasons is recorded with the addition of “8”. For instance, non-compliance with renal dialysis plans that isn’t financially motivated becomes Z91.A58 rather than Z91.A51.

The “Deletion” of Parkinson’s Disease

In the spirit of clarification rather than elimination, ICD-10-CMS codes for Parkinson’s disease were also “deleted” and replaced by nearly identical codes with fourth or even fifth digits. These additional digits specify whether or not the patient has dyskinesia or fluctuations.

Other Code Deletions for 2024

Other ICD-10-CM codes deleted in the 2024 update include:

• Q44.7 – Other congenital malformations of the liver
• E88.81 – Metabolic syndrome
• I24.8 – Other forms of acute ischemic heart disease
• D13.9 – Benign neoplasm within the digestive system (at ill-defined sites)
• Z83.71 – Family history of colonic polyps

Diseases of the Nervous System: 2024 ICD-10-CM Code Changes

For diseases of the nervous system, 2024 ICD-10-CM updates expanded existing categories to include new subcategories with their own unique codes. For instance, G43.1 for migraine with aura was revised to include G43.E as a subcategory with a complete family of sub-codes: G43.E0, G43.E01, and G43.E09. This was done to differentiate between acute and chronic migraines, migraines with and without auras, and intractability.

Standout Revisions to the 2024 ICD-10-CM Codes

Some sections of the ICD-10-CM code received far more revisions, deletions, and additions than others. For instance, 22 new codes were added to congenital deformations, malformations, and chromosomal abnormalities (Q00 – Q99), and six existing codes in this category were revised.

The 2024 ICD-10-CM Codes With the Most Updates: External Causes of Morbidity

External causes of morbidity (ICD-10-CM codes V00 to Y99) saw the greatest number of changes. Accounting for nearly 50% of all newly added codes, this section received 123 updates. Code additions in this section largely pertain to both organic and inorganic bodies entering natural orifices.

W44.F3xA

W44.F3xA was added to the updated ICD-10-CM for 2024 to specify food items entering the body through a natural orifice as a first encounter. It also accounts for first encounters of foods passing through the body via a natural orifice.

W44.A1XA

W44.A1XA is used to code diagnosis and treatment for button batteries that have entered or passed through a natural orifice. As with W44.F3xA, this code is only applicable for initial encounters.

W44.H0xA and W44.H2XD

W44.H0xA denotes a first encounter with any unspecified sharp object entering or passing through a natural orifice. Similarly, W44.H2XD denotes any initial encounter with a sharp sword or knife entering into a natural orifice. When patients present with a first encounter of unspecified glass in a natural orifice or injuries resulting from unspecified glass having passed through an orifice, W44.C0XA is the billable code to use.

Summary of 2024 ICD-10-CM Code Additions

Many changes in the ICD-10-CM for 2024 reflect recent innovations in medical technology. These are found in the technology and medical surgery sections of the code and reflect advances such as intubated prone positioning, magnetic lengthening of the esophagus, and external heart assistance. As with code deletions in which one or more digits is added to an existing code to make it more specific, many new ICD-10-CM codes were introduced with the sole purpose of better defining patient experiences, symptoms, and treatments and ensuring a clear cause of mortality when applicable.

New ICD-10-CM Codes to Better Define Osteoporosis

2024 ICD-10-CM code updates also offered better ways to define osteoporosis. These updates affect codes M00 through M99 for diseases affecting the connective tissue and musculoskeletal system.

M80.0B1K and M80.0B2G

M80.0B1K and M80.0B2G are both used to denote age-related osteoporosis with an existing fraction. However, M80.0B1K specifies a fracture of the right pelvis, and M80.0B2G specifies a fracture of the left.

M80.8B2P and M80.8B9D

For non-age-related osteoporosis or “other osteoporosis” with a subsequent fraction, M80.8B2P and M80.8B9D distinguish between proper healing and continued problems. M80.8B2P suggests malunion of the fused bones and M80.8B9D indicates routine or expected healing.

New Notes on Coding Mental, Behavioral, and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

ICD-10-CM codes saw several revisions on how practitioners and other entities are required to enter them. For example, in section F01-F99, the CMS has made it mandatory that an underlying physiological condition must be specified before delirium is assigned an F05 code. When releasing its annual code updates, the CMS additionally releases an updated “ICD-10-CM Official Guidelines for Coding and Reporting.”

The Agencies in Charge of Annual ICD-10-CM Updates

The international ICD-10 coding system is copyrighted by the external icon of the WHO. The WHO owns and publishes international ICD codes and approves each version of the ICD for its member countries. While ICD-10-CM codes were established by the NCHS and are maintained by the CDC and CMS, all ICD-10-CM code revisions are reviewed annually by the WHO before they are announced and implemented in the United States healthcare system.

Who Oversees ICD-10-CM Guideline Revisions for 2024?

2024 changes to the ICD-10-CM include revised guidelines for coding and reporting. While both ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-CM updates are reviewed and authorized by the WHO, the guidelines for coding and reporting are reviewed and approved by the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), and both the CMS and the NCHS.

How Often Are ICD-10-CM Codes Updated and Why?

International ICD-10 updates occur annually and are reviewed and approved by the WHO each year. Now that more than 60 WHO member countries have transitioned to the ICD-11, annual updates from the WHO will reflect changes to this new coding system rather than its predecessor.

In like fashion, the CMS has issued updates to the ICD-10-CM once yearly, with pre-authorization and review from the WHO. However, in April 2023, the CMS issued an alert that it would double its current update schedule and present code revisions twice yearly, once in April and again in October, in the future.

The ICD-10-CMS and the ICD-11: Which Is Most Current in the U.S.?

While the CMS is busy updating the ICD-10-CM, much of the medical world has moved on to the ICD-11. In fact, the WHO last updated the ICD-10 for international purposes in 2020. Unfortunately, implementing the ICD-11 in the United States is expected to be a years-long endeavor. Only about 23.5% of ICD-10 codes are fully represented by single ICD-11 codes. Transitioning requires new technology, amended electronic data recording, and widespread training for a new “clustered” code system. For these and other reasons, the 2024 updates to the ICD-10-CM codes provide the most accurate, current, and relevant codes for morbidity tracking, billing, and other medical purposes throughout the U.S.

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